Prolotherapy is an injection technique that is recommended for tightening ligaments and areas of the body where the muscle attaches to the bone. This technique requires two steps. First, and for purposes of minimizing any pain associated with the procedure an injection of a local anesthetic (Procaine or Lidocaine) into the skin may be done. The second step is the infusion of the actual treating solution, which, depending on the patient, may be concentrated sugar water (Dextrose or glucose); refined cod liver oil (Sodium Morrhuate); or another medication such as Phenol, Glycerin or Pumice. This second injection is made based on a physical exam by your physician and a determination as to the source of the injury, normally where the ligament or muscle attaches to the bone. Because of the manner in which the treatment works, it may be necessary to do a series of injections in order to obtain the full benefit of treatment. For more information, see the Prolotherapy for Chronic Pain brochure under Patient Resources.